Tag: tomography

Upvote Story 6
In the study cohort, ICU admission pectoralis muscle area (PMA) was associated with survival during and following critical illness; it was unable to predict regaining an independent lifestyle following discharge. ICU admission SAT mass was not associated with survival or other measured outcomes. PMA of patients admitted to a medical intensive care unit (MICU) is associated with survival both during and after critical illness, but... Read More | Comment
Upvote Story 6
Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is a clinical entity that acutely affects the lung parenchyma, and is characterized by diffuse alveolar damage and increased pulmonary vascular permeability. Currently, computed tomography (CT) is commonly used for classifying and prognosticating ARDS. However, performing this examination in critically ill patients is complex, due to the need to transfer these patients to the CT room. Fortunately, new technologies have... Read More | Comment
Upvote Story 5
For the identification of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) using the Berlin definition, both chest radiography and lung ultrasound were equally related to mortality. The Berlin definition using lung ultrasound helped identify patients at higher risk of death, even if these patients did not fulfill the conventional Berlin definition using chest radiography. However, the moderate overlap of patients when chest imaging modalities differed suggests that... Read More | Comment
Upvote Story 7
For specialist nurses on neurocritical care units, accompanying patients for imaging scans and other procedures has a major impact on nurse staffing ratios, reports a study in the Journal of Neuroscience Nursing. Over 30 days, observations showed that neurocritical care nurses spent more than 226 hours traveling with patients. The main tests and procedures involved were computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging scans and vascular... Read More | Comment
Upvote Story 4
Methods to monitor lean body mass in the ICU are under constant development, improving upon bedside usability and offering new modalities to measure. This provides clinicians with valuable markers with which to identify patients at high nutritional risk and to evaluate metabolic support during critical illness. Computed tomography scan analysis, musculoskeletal ultrasound, and bioelectrical impedance analysis are emerging as powerful clinical tools to monitor lean... Read More | Comment
Upvote Story 5
Two CT scans performed during blunt trauma encounters demonstrated mixed benefit and were associated with an increased hospital LOS. Additionally, IV contrast was associated with lower rates of AKI. Of 5787 patient encounters, 5335 (93.4%) received IV contrast and 75 (1.3%) received two CT scans. Lower rates of AKI were associated with IV contrast (2.5 vs 12.5%). Receiving two CT scans was associated with increased... Read More | Comment
Upvote Story 10
Airway pressure-time curve profile (stress index) detects tidal recruitment/hyperinflation in experimental acute lung injury. Shape of the Paw-t curve detects tidal recruitment and tidal hyperinflation. Pulmonary computed tomography was obtained during end-expiratory and end-inspiratory occlusions. Tidal recruitment was quantified as nonaerated (between −100 and +100 Hounsfield units) lung area at end-expiration minus end-inspiration. Read More | Comment
Upvote Story 5
Assessing alveolar recruitment at different positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) levels is a major clinical and research interest because protective ventilation implies opening the lung without inducing overdistention. The pressure-volume (P-V) curve is a validated method of assessing recruitment but reflects global characteristics, and changes at the regional level may remain undetected. The aim of the present study was to compare, in intubated patients with acute... Read More | Comment
Upvote Story 6
Susceptibility to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) beyond cigarette smoking is incompletely understood, although several genetic variants associated with COPD are known to regulate airway branch development. We demonstrate that in vivo central airway branch variants are present in 26.5% of the general population, are unchanged over 10y, and exhibit strong familial aggregation. The most common airway branch variant is associated with COPD in two... Read More | Comment
Upvote Story 23
In this analysis of 306 hospital referral regions, regional CT risk was significantly correlated with nephrectomy, and scanning an additional 1000 Medicare beneficiaries was associated with 4 additional nephrectomies. Beneficiaries residing in high-scanning regions face a higher risk of nephrectomy, presumably reflecting the incidental detection of kidney masses. Fee-for-service Medicare beneficiaries are commonly exposed to CT imaging. Those residing in high-scanning regions face a higher... Read More | Comment
Upvote Story 4
In this cohort study, when the PSC protocol was fully executed, the rate of good outcomes was doubled and the time from arrival at the PSC to reperfusion at the CSC was almost 1 hour less than that with only a partial execution of the protocol. When fully implemented, a standardized protocol at PSCs for patients with suspected ELVO consisting of early CSC notification, computed... Read More | Comment
Upvote Story 8
Intravenous (IV) iodinated contrast media is used routinely to improve the accuracy of computed tomography (CT) in the emergency department (ED).  Prior studies have linked contrast media with the development of acute kidney injury (AKI) and has been linked to increased risk of major adverse events including the initiation of dialysis, renal failure, stroke, myocardial infarction and death.   There does not appear to be... Read More | Comment
Upvote Story 5
Deficiency of lysosomal acid lipase is a rare autosomal recessive lysosomal storage disease characterized by the accumulation of cholesteryl esters and triglycerides, predominantly in macrophages. Nonspecific clinical features such as gastrointestinal symptoms and weight loss often lead to delayed diagnosis. Enzyme-replacement therapy with sebelipase alfa, a recombinant form of lysosomal acid lipase, was prescribed. Six months after the initiation of treatment, the patient remains asymptomatic... Read More | Comment
Upvote Story 9
Low skeletal muscle quality at ICU admission, as assessed by CT-derived skeletal muscle density, is independently associated with higher 6-month mortality in mechanically ventilated patients. Thus, muscle quality as well as muscle quantity are prognostic factors in the ICU. Read More | Comment